Scaring students on the first day

The other day I was talking to a friend who also just stared the fall term at a university here in Korea. We were talking about schedules and plans and the weather and all sorts of things when my friend said, “I do enjoy scaring freshmen on the first day.” I was a bit surprised by this bold and potentially sadistic confession so I pursued a discussion on this by asking, “What do you do?” while not really knowing what to expect. What sort of scary tricks did he have up his sleeve? Did he dress up as a clown? Did he make them dress like clowns? Did he scream and yell? Did he make students do push-ups? Did he lecture them on the impermanence of life? Did he share statistics about youth unemployment in Korea? Did he have students march to the top of their desks or the building and recite poetry? Did he tell ghost stories? Did he explain how hard the course would be in a voice that would make a movie drill sergeant proud whilst getting bits of saliva on their first day of school outfit?


His response was not as exciting or cruel as I might have been expecting. He said, “I just use a stern voice on the first day. You know? Lay down the law.” That didn’t sound very harsh to me, and I found myself joining in, saying, “This is not high school anymore.” I think my friend could see I knew where he was coming from and he added, “They need it.”

I thought I was following my friend’s line of thinking for a minute there but then I got all wrapped up in my own thoughts. I wondered more about the scariness, thinking maybe he had students come to the front and do scary shit from minute 1, day 1.

Here I started to wonder exactly what students need at the start of the term. Do they need clarity or fear? Is fear a good way to get to clarity? Is it better to be feared than loved? Is warmth and rapport more important than fear? Is fear just a tool to help students get on board in the early stages so that rapport can be developed later on? Am I thinking too much about rapport because of the KELTchat on this subject?

I pondered the aspect of us both being “native” English teachers in Korea so maybe there is something here about the perceived roles of teachers and how serious our classes are or are perceived or expected to be. My friend sort of confirmed this by adding, “Some students expect it’s going to be a happy happy fun fun time, and sometimes it is, but they expect me to be like their HS English ‘teacha.’ Charades and all.”  I don’t really have anything against charades or high school or other previous teachers but I can see the benefit in letting students know from the start that this is something different and that their previous experiences are not a always great match for the tasks and expectations here. I suppose recognition could be scary for students, yet I suppose I am still mostly uncomfortable with intentionally scaring students.

I think I can see a few benefits to (slightly) scaring students at the start. One is potentially weeding out the students that are not there to learn and thus whittling down the class roster to a more manageable number. Another thought is that it is probably better for students not to be unexpectedly overburdened with the workload. Regarding interpersonal connections, there can be a nice feeling when the barriers break down over time. I think students can sniff out teachers that are trying to be overly friendly or chummy from the start and this might be annoying or distracting. Just some thoughts, of course.

My friend seemed particularly interested in expectations and helping students change their expectations about the course. He said his first year students, “think the writing topics will be along the lines of describing their bedroom and the process of making ramyeon so I have to set a serious tone from the get go, then open up some as we go along, especially when there are so many in the class.” His points sort of reminded me of the old, “Don’t smile till Christmas” advice younger teachers used to get. I am not sure I put much stock in that but I also realized every context is different.

What do you think of all this? How do you go about balancing between a serious and friendly tone? Do you wait until issues arise before laying down the heavy and reminding students that they are in a serious place?

Maybe it being in the syllabus is not enough?

A common complaint from those involved in English education in Korean universities is that students just don’t read the syllabus. Instructors complain, “Every term it is the same thing. These kids, fresh out of high school, first time not having their hands held, have no idea how to learn and no idea what education is all about. They are too lazy or too stupid to read the fucking syllabus.” The thing that most catches my eye here, even more than denigrating students or the complete lack of responsibility, is the “every time” bit. If it happens every time maybe their is something the instructor can do? Maybe there is something the instructor can learn from this biannual stressfest. “Fool me once, shame on you, fool me twice, shame on me,” right?


I like to think if something so incensed me I’d take some measures to prevent it. I think spending 10-20 minutes on the most important points in the syllabus (whilst being leery of too much telling time) is better than continually bitching about how students just don’t get it. I think giving students a chance and a reason to see what is on the syllabus is better than unbunching my panties every time students miss or forget something that is on the syllabus.

Rather than just looking down on people for getting angry about the wrong things I will share a few ideas to prevent what is now known as the ‘It’s in the fucking syllabus headache.” I am not suggesting any of these ideas are groundbreaking but they might be helpful for those at wit’s end. I want to emphasize there is something you can do. What can you do?

go ahead and read the syllabus

  1. Let it go
    We cannot control everything. Our time on this earth is limited. It is not worth losing sleep or pulling your hair out. Students missing something in the syllabus is not an indictment of your character or a referendum on Ss’ respect for you. It is a thing that happens sometimes, so let it go.
  2. Write and negotiate the syllabus as you go
    Probably the most controversial on the list and perhaps not possible in many contexts. Geoff Jordan shares some thoughts on the negotiated syllabus here. I think teachers often feel pressured to lay out everything well in advance (perhaps to show how professional and organized they are?) but I wonder how much of this pressure really exists. I also wonder if it is easy enough in most situations to call the schedule “tentative” or “subject to change” and roll with it from there. I honestly don’t know how much latitude most teachers have with this. I sometimes get the impression teachers think the syllabus is a legally binding contract and something they cannot deviate from. I do again realize that depending on the context there might be no wiggle room.

    why do i even write a syllabus

  3. Work with true or false statements about the details of the course
    This is something I have done many times. I just make a series of statements about the course and how it will be run. Students have to decide if the statement are true or false. Ss can discuss with a partner before the big reveal from the teacher. An additional wrinkle is to print out these statements on slips of paper and have students place the statements in piles for true of false. I might just give the answers or I might add some more details. I might give time for questions or emphasize that all the additional relevant information is, in fact, in the syllabus. The thing I like about this T/F business is that I can highlight the points I want Ss to see. I also think the chance to get it wrong and then find the right answer makes it more memorable.
  4. Assess syllabus knowledge
    Give a quiz in the second (or some other early) week of class. Ask SS about information found in the syllabus. You can tell students in advance you will do this. You can even count the score as part of Ss’ overall score. You don’t have to. Again, this is a way to focus students’ attention on what the instructor thinks is important and add a little more encouragement to engage with the syllabus.
  5. Ss create tasks for each other based on info in the syllabus
    This is a variation on .the above. They key point is that the syllabus (or parts of it) is in students’ hands and they are doing stuff with it. One nice move i have seen before involved teachers dividing the syllabus into sections and having students create worksheets for their classmates based on their section. An idea along the same lines is to simply jigsaw the syllabus and have students  explain their sections to each other. Of course you could mix and match with the above ideas, too.

You might be saying, “These are all ok, if not terribly new or exciting, ideas but I just don’t have time for this crap. I have things to cover and content to go over and I just can’t invest them time!” To this I’d say, “Fair enough, but surely if students not checking the syllabus is annoying enough you will want to do something!” I wonder if readers have any suggestions to make it more clear that the syllabus is a resource while helping students get the information they need about the course.

Korean University Jobs: A Golden Opportunity

My term here at a university in Korea just started yesterday after a nice vacation. While it can be an adjustment getting back into the swing of things I have to say I love my job and I am pretty happy to be back at work. Although, of course, there are some things I’d like to improve (who wouldn’t want more money?) I am extremely satisfied in my current working situation. I’d like to share a few reasons why.


Students’ glittering eyes
My students are extremely hard working but they are also fun, funny, interesting, curious, kind, and sincere. They are a pleasure to work with.They are filled with integrity, academic and otherwise. They are eager to improve and they work at it both in an out of class. They seem to generally and genuinely appreciate my teaching and feedback. We have lots of interesting talks on politics, culture, movies, and the minutia of the English language.

Lots of autonomy, respect, and support
i have lots of support from colleagues and admin but I don’t feel pressure of anyone looking over my shoulder. I make my own decisions without much concern about what non-students will think. Whenever I have a question there are people I can ask.

It’s never boring
For me, working with people, especially bright and interesting ones, with the autonomy described above is never boring. Like TV moms used to say, “Only boring people are bored.” There is always something new to try and new understandings to gain. Simply changing the order of activities in a lesson or topic we have seemingly “done” or “covered” numerous times can offer a fresh perspective. And since there is nothing telling me I need to “do” the travel unit in week 4 and present perfect continuous in week 8 I am free to make decisions based on what I think my learners need. I’d also suggest that maybe only becomes boring when we allow ourselves to stop caring and experimenting. While it may not be rocket surgery there are still plenty of puzzles and things to think about if we choose to be engaged.

Chances for Professional Development
This is something I have been able to take advantage of. I even wrote about the variety of professional development opportunities for English teachers in South Korea here. If we assume that uni instructors have more time then this is even more true.There are so many opportunities it would be a shame for anyone to let their brain or skills become atrophied.

Additionally, I *should also mention I have had opportunities to teach classes outside of my subject area and these were great chances for professional development. Teaching Business Management, Korean Studies and Korean Politics gave me a fresh perspective on teaching and learning and also gave me a chance to work with different types of students.

Opportunities for further income streams
I have heard tell of foreign instructors doing private lessons throughout the year. I have heard of some folks doing teacher training during vacations. I have heard of people doing presentations for money. I know lots of people who publish academic articles and receive money from their universities on a per article basis. Sometimes these payments are quite handsome. I have heard of people editing and doing all sorts of paid employment while working at a university in Korea. I have heard that this can be a nice way to make some additional revenue, especially for those instructors feeling bothered by a lack of raises.

Korean Perceptions of Foreign Professors
I am not one of those (loathsome?) individuals who is always shouting about how he is a professor. I am, however, on an E-1 (Professor) visa. This was seemingly quite impressive to the gentleman at immigration the other day. I mention this prestige factor simply to highlight my belief that Korean people tend to place a lot of prestige on those working in tertiary institutions regardless where the worker is from.

I haven’t really run into much, “You can’t teach X because you are a foreigner” stuff. In fact my experience has been more like, “You can teach Y so you can probably go ahead and teach X, too, right?” This has generally suited me just fine. I feel trusted and respected and this is a great feeling.

The End
I am not saying that I will stay in this job forever  or that I’d want to, or even could. I am just saying it is pretty nice for now. To each their own, though. My sincere hope is that didn’t sound super douchy or like I was bragging too much about the very fortunate position I am in as a foreign instructor at a university in South Korea. I worry that I might have generalized a bit about the context here and I would urge anyone writing about teaching Korea (or anywhere really) to avoid major generalizations about the context because it can obviously vary.  I feel like there is a lot more to consider with this topic but it requires a lot of time and nuance.

A Conversation with Michael Free

Over the last few months I have been sharing emails and Facebook messages with Michael Free and at some point we thought a semi-polished interview might be of interest to readers. It is my great pleasure to share our discussion here, starting after the pic. 


One of these Michaels is Michael Free.

Hi Michael thanks for taking the time to talk with me. You are finishing about 10 years in the EPIK program. How do you feel?
Tired. Over the past few weeks, I’ve primarily felt tired. There’s the usual fatigue that comes with the end of the term; the ‘I love my students but I need them to leave me alone for a while’ state teachers are all familiar with. However, there’s also the fact this is the end of my ninth year with EPIK, a long time to stay with one employer and a very long time to stay with EPIK. I almost said ‘one job,’ but I’ve worked in 4 different counties in over 20 schools, so it’s pretty hard to view it that way. Anyway, it’s been a long time, so there’s a deeper sense of fatigue. I also just recently completed my dissertation for my M. TEFL (with the University of Birmingham), so, altogether, I’m nearly completely wiped out. I must say, though, that I’m also feeling very excited. I’ve finished the M. TEFL, got a new job, and my wife just got promoted as well. So, things are looking good, I’d say.

Nice. Sounds great. I am happy to hear things seem to be working out well. What else) have you accomplished in your time in Korea?
I always feel self-conscious answering this type of question, but I’ll give it a shot. I’ve got some additional credentials (a TEYL certificate, lots of online PD, and now an M TEFL), lots of experience (over 20 schools, every public school grade except grade 3 of high school). I’ve also presented at conferences (both small and large), and helped organise PD events for teachers here in Gangwon with KOTESOL. Outside of teaching, I’ve also paid off my student loans, been able to visit other Asian countries, and married the Best Kindergarten Teacher in Korea (Full disclosure: I gave her that award).

Thanks for the response. I know it was sort of an awkward question. Again, it’s nice to hear how things have worked out for you. And you spent all 10 years in Gangwon? How do you think being there this impact your experience?
In very interesting, and mostly positive, ways. When I decided to move to Korea from Montreal, I deliberately chose a rural area. I wanted a complete shift of lifestyle — and I certainly got it! Going from 24/7 cosmopolitanism to life just south of the DMZ in a rural fishing village is pretty extreme.


A shot of the East Sea from the hills in Geojin-eup (pop. 8000).

For some urban dwellers this could be really jarring. I’ve met a few people who were, at least temporarily, overcome. It brings to mind the scene in Apocalypse Now where Captain Willard describes his boat-mate, Mr. Clean: “I think the light and the space of Vietnam really put the zap on his head.”


Lawrence Fishburne, as a zapped Mr. Clean

It was different for me, though, as I wasn’t drafted. I chose it. The light, space, and especially the time gave me a chance to clean house, figuratively and literally, which was what I was after. If I had moved to Seoul, on the other hand, I’m not sure I would have stayed in Korea as long (though you never know). As I settled in, it became clear that working in Gangwon was going to be a big challenge. Given the nature of the Korean educational system and the socio-economic situation here, teaching English, just trying to teach English, can be frustrating, even heartbreaking at times. I’m thinking here of the very rural schools, which is to say the majority of schools I’ve worked in. The students know, I’m quite convinced, they know what they’re up against. It can make for a rough ride, when you care about their development and future beyond today’s word list or (modified-from-its-original-bollox) textbook activity.

It sounds like you embraced the challenge. Why are you leaving?
Opportunity knocked, and I answered. I’ll be moving to Gangneung, where I’ll be a Visiting Professor at Gangneung-Wonju National University. A colleague, whom I now owe a dinner (he says it’s more than one), put me in touch with the people who were looking for his replacement. In typically Korean style, it all happened quickly, and, though there are some details left to work out, the job looks like it will provide me the opportunity to expand my ELT horizons and reconnect with university teaching. It will also give me some more time to focus on seriously learning Korean (dreadfully overdue), and perhaps do some research.

Great news. Gangueng is one of my favorite places in Korea, by the way. What advice would you give to new teachers starting with EPIK now?
Learn some Korean right away, because the effort will most likely endear you to your school. Get out and explore Korea (not just the foreigner hot spots) and make some friends in your community. Know whom to contact if you have questions or are having issues adjusting (sure, your friends from orientation can provide support, but typically they don’t know any more than you do). Try to nip problems in the bud. Also, get involved in some professional development. To be blunt:  If you arrive here with a 100-hour TESOL certificate, a Bachelor of Not-Education, and no teaching experience, you need professional development.  I’m not saying you should sign up for an advanced degree program immediately, but buy a book, attend a webinar or attend a KOTESOL meeting (Full disclosure, again: I’m currently the president of the Gangwon Chapter). Most of all, bear in mind that, whether you like it or not, you’re an ambassador for your country and your profession. I feel a bit like a Dutch uncle saying that, but it’s true (and it doesn’t matter that it’s not fair that you didn’t sign up to be an ambassador).

Oh, I almost forgot I was talking to the President of my KOTESOL chapter. And speaking of EPIK, you wrote a guest post on this a blog before about native teachers in Korean public schools …do you agree with what you wrote then? What changed since?
I do, indeed. In fact, what happened just after that post reinforced my central point about the lack of time to plan being the biggest issue for many of us. One week before the start of term — one week! — I was assigned a schedule that involved 5 schools (none of which I had worked at before), 9 grades, over a dozen different textbooks and even more co-teachers (the actual number was considerably less). The first two months in that schedule were hectic, to say the least. I had to try to get organised very quickly, and I didn’t know enough about the schools I was going into to be able to prepare as thoroughly as I would have liked. So, no, nothing has changed, at least for me.

What advice would you give those running EPIK? Why?
There are some specific suggestions that I can’t get into, even though your readers might find them interesting. I hope that’s not too much of a tease, but I’m bound by agreement to not discuss matters that contain confidential information. The advice I feel I can give is to urge, pressure, and exhort the key decision makers to listen. Not just to the ideas I’ve tried (and, apparently, often failed) to communicate to them during my time as a teacher and district coordinator, but to other teachers. The people they should listen to include not only senior EPIK teachers (a dwindling number), but some of the more experienced Korean English teachers. I had the opportunity to talk with quite a few Korean teachers during the course of my dissertation research. They are knowledgeable, passionate educators who know what needs to be done to improve not only EPIK, but English teaching in Korea in general. “Dear admin, please listen” is a typical refrain of teachers, I know, but I can’t help but join in the chorus. As to why, I have to return to planning, though on a larger scale. There needs to be a plan for EPIK, which should, ideally, be connected to a long-term vision. This should be rigorously related to the National Curriculum, and thoughtfully tailored to students’ needs.

You mentioned the dwindling number of senior EPIK teachers. I wonder what you think about this trend of reducing the number of EPIK teachers. Any thoughts on this?
I do have some, but, for the same reason I gave above, I have to refrain from getting into specifics. When I first arrived, the mantra was, for better or worse, “1 NEST in every school.” Now, due to economics and, to an extent, politics, this is impossible even in theory; there are just too many schools and too few bodies. I’m of the opinion that it is possible to have positive outcomes with fewer, but well-trained teachers. To use Apocalypse Now once again, Col. Kurtz, in one of his more lucid moments, said: “If I had [only] ten divisions of those men, our troubles here would be over very quickly.”


Col. Kurtz, with his copy of “Big Questions in ELT.”

If EPIK had a smaller number of qualified ELTs (not just men, obviously, and, perhaps less obviously to some, not merely ‘qualified’ by their citizenship), wow, what a difference they could make! But, again, for this to happen you need a plan, an organized system, in which these teachers can be allowed to perform. Just parachuting individual teachers into schools and letting things work on an ad hoc basis has, at best, provided mixed results. There have been small-scale improvements in the program, I should say, but there needs to be a reconsideration of some fundamentals in order for EPIK to really accomplish something significant. Maybe there will be a plan or a system in the future. It would certainly be welcome!

I suppose we should stop here. Thanks again for taking the time, Michael. Talk to you soon!
You’re quite welcome! Anytime!
I will just relax here and listen to “The End of the World” (as we know it) by REM because things are a-changin’.

Note: The photo of the Michaels was taken by Barb Sakamoto at the 2014 KOTESOL International Conference and is from her excellent set of the event on Flickr. The other photos were found on the internets (or taken) by Michael Free and were captioned by him. 


Imagine your Korea as a sparkling mecca of ELT PD

I always smile when I think of the story of two people I happen to know talking in a staff room in Turkey. One of them had just left South Korea after teaching in that fine nation for a few years and the other’s connection to Korea was mostly through people she knew and interacted with online. This teacher who had never been to Korea (though she’ll be warmly welcomed when and if she can make it!) had an extremely positive impression of English teachers in Korea. She was thinking of what she saw as plentiful opportunities for PD and overall professionalism and commitment to the craft of teaching from English teachers. This might not sound like a common description of teachers (especially foreign teachers) in Korea but it’s the impression she had. I think foreign teachers in Korea often have (and yes, often earn) a not-so-great reputation. There can be a lot of debate about how and if this not-so-great reputation is earned. One thing I am pretty sure of, though, is that there is a lot of professional development opportunities available for English teachers in South Korea. That is the subject of my brand new post over at the KOTESOL non-blog article collection something.

Go on. Click it.

I realize in the post (which can be found here and you really need to click on if this post you are currently reading is to make any sense!) I might have given an overly cheerful analysis of things. I can even sense the eyes of a few friends rolling as they think something like, “Yeah there are opportunities but you need to be in the right situation to get the most of these opportunities” and “It is easy for those who don’t teach 40 hours a week to talk about professional development opportunities” and “C’mon, Mike, I know you are not that positive or optimistic about everything” and “Yeah there are opportunities but employers don’t care as much as they *should about teachers’s PD.” I suppose I’d concede all these points while maintaining there are a lot of opportunities for PD for English teachers in Korea. 

From the Mailbag: Message Boards

A friend of mine (who I’ve actually never met in person) emailed and asked about discussion boards for language classes and I have been dragging my feet getting back to him. Sorry, friend. I am also sorry not sorry for using the question as an excuse to blog. I  hope it will be worthwhile and people will give leave some thoughts or links in the comments to add to the discussion and help my friend out, assuming it is not already too late. Reading the email from my friend I suspected he is the camp of people (like Tim Hampson) who believe me to be tech savvy. I am not so sure I am.  In this case and on this topic of message boards, I fear my responses will be disappointing or not very helpful. My friend knows I have used discussion boards as both a student and instructor on The New School MATESOL program and wondered how and if I used them in regular English classes. The simple answer is that I don’t. I have used them in the past for teacher education and training but for don’t really do anything with message boards in my English focused classes. I do use wikis in some of my courses and there is an option for discussion there but I don’t make an official (or assessed) part of the course. My friend teaches at a university in the US and his questions (summarized and paraphrased below after the picture) got me wondering why I don’t use such boards in my classes in Korea. message board What are your thoughts on message boards as an supplement to face-to-face English classes? Do you have any ideas or best practices about this? Best practices? Any thoughts? Have you ever done this for your classes? Do you know any online resources where people have talked about ideas? I can see lots of potential for such boards. My current idea is to use discussion boards prior to in-class meetings in my International Discussion class to ensure students are thinking about the issues before class. It also seems like a great chance to assess how well students can articulate their views on the topics. I think I’d try to make it so discussion boards are as “speaking-like” as possible even though they are in written form. Of course there are things like Voice Thread where the discussions could be in spoken form but I am drawn to text for the particular class I am thinking about.

My friend’s questions got me wondering why I don’t use message boards in my English classes and it seems like my reasons are not so strong. I think perhaps inertia is one of the strongest reasons. This coupled with concerns or questions about how best to set things up in advance might have prevented me from using message boards. I am thinking I might give it a go this autumn. Any suggestions, tips, sites, or links for me and my friend? Thanks in advance.

I am a used car [Guest Post]

Mike says: I received the following from a long-time native English teacher in  South Korean public schools. This teacher wanted to share his/her feelings about the experience. 

The other day I was thinking about how I would describe a career as a foreign EFL teacher in public schools in South Korea. With so many ways to think of it, I could only come up with one that truly describes my personal feelings after nearly 7 years in the public school system working under contract with local and provincial education offices. My position leaves me feeling as if I am little more than a used car to those that are “in charge.”

rusty car

Think back to the purchase of a new car if you have ever made such a purchase. You get the car and it is all shiny, clean, and perfect. That was me as a new teacher in Korea. I was shiny and clean. There were no dings on my body and no scratches on my paint. The owners, the office of education and school, were so happy and they wanted to take care of me and show me off to all of their friends. They wanted to maintain me with regular servicing in the form of pay increases, ample vacation time, and a schedule that didn’t put 100,000 km a year on the odometer.

As time has passed, they have taken away a large majority of the regular servicing in the sense that vacation time has decreased by 50 percent, pay increases have stopped, the number classes has increased, and employer provided housing has taken a hit. Like a used car, they see little need to maintain us. They want to drive us harder and faster and then they want to take us to the scrap yard and get a new model.

I am not saying that this problem is unique to Korea and that it doesn’t happen in other places. I would be naïve to think in such a way. I also understand the way that Korean contract teachers are treated. Many of them are treated as if they don’t matter and they are forced into doing everything that the “real teachers” don’t want to do. During my time in Korea, I have worked with some contract workers who have English skills and teaching knowledge that surpass that of a large majority of the “real teachers.” Unfortunately, they were unable to pass a test, which many of the older “real teachers” never had to take, or their major was something other than English and they will be confined to the role of a disposable used car like many of us.

Many of them will never receive the recognition or benefits that they truly deserve. A clear case of this can be seen in the following statement that was published in a recent article in The Korea Times. “The government has refused to recognize that two part-time teachers at Danwon High School, who perished in the ferry Sewol sinking, died while on duty because they were not full-time teachers who are categorized as public servants.” So, they were not on duty because they were only part-timers and not “real teachers?” Do they not deserve any recognition for their service or sacrifice? According to those in charge, they don’t.

Some will say that this is life and it happens to everyone. I cannot deny that this is life and it happens, but does it have to happen? Would it hurt the people in charge to give a few more benefits and treat people with a little more respect based on their time of service? I feel like it wouldn’t hurt them at all and the trade-off between a greater expense and the quality of employee work would probably come close to evening out for all involved parties.

In closing, I would like to say that the things I have written only reflect my views on how some NETs and Korean contract teachers are treated. In general, Korea is a decent place with a lot of nice things to offer and a large number of people that are good and hardworking. However, until the “owners of the car” decide to maintain their automobiles better, the junk yards will become full and harder to keep out of sight.

scrap vehicles